They are brought together at the beginning of Eric Hobsbawm's history of the world sincewhich is titled, appropriately, The Age of Extremes. They sum up a century which has seen bloodletting and barbarity on an immense scale million dead in the First World War, 40 million dead in the Second World War, 6 million exterminated in the Nazi death camps, 10 million imprisoned, many to die, in Stalin's gulags, 4 million dead in the famine he brought to the Ukraine and Kazakhstan, another 4 million dead in the famine which British rule brought to Bengal in the early s, hundreds of thousands burnt alive in the bombing of Dresden, Hamburg, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a million killed in the French colonial war in Algeria, 2 million in the US war in Vietnam and Cambodia, millions more killed and forced to flee as refugees in the wave of civil wars that swept Africa, the Caucasus, Central America and the Balkans in the s and s.
With numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, it was necessary to verify which sources were more reliable.
In order to evaluate these sources, various methodologies were developed, such as the " science of biography ", " science of hadith " and " Isnad " chain of transmission. These methodologies were later applied to other historical figures in the Islamic civilization. Famous historians in this tradition include Urwah d.
During the Age of Enlightenmentthe modern development of historiography through the application of scrupulous methods began. Among the many Italians who contributed to this were Leonardo Bruni c. Voltaire[ edit ] French philosophe Voltaire — had an enormous influence on the development of historiography during the Age of Enlightenment through his demonstration of fresh new ways to look at the past.
Guillaume de Syon argues: Voltaire recast historiography in both factual and analytical terms. Not only did he reject traditional biographies and accounts that claim the work of supernatural forces, but he went so far as to suggest that earlier historiography was rife with falsified evidence and required new investigations at the source.
Such an outlook was not unique in that the scientific spirit that 18th-century intellectuals perceived themselves as invested with.
A rationalistic approach was key to rewriting history. He broke from the tradition of narrating diplomatic and military events, and emphasized customs, social history and achievements in the arts and sciences. He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the world, eliminating theological frameworks, and emphasizing economics, culture and political history.
Although he repeatedly warned against political bias on the part of the historian, he did not miss many opportunities to expose the intolerance and frauds of the church over the ages. Voltaire advised scholars that anything contradicting the normal course of nature was not to be believed.
Although he found evil in the historical record, he fervently believed reason and educating the illiterate masses would lead to progress. He helped free historiography from antiquarianism, Eurocentrismreligious intolerance and a concentration on great men, diplomacy, and warfare.
In he published the History of Englanda 6-volume work which extended "From the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in ". Hume adopted a similar scope to Voltaire in his history; as well as the history of Kings, Parliaments, and armies, he examined the history of culture, including literature and science, as well.
Because of its relative objectivity and heavy use of primary sourcesits methodology became a model for later historians. This has led to Gibbon being called the first "modern historian". Biographer Leslie Stephen wrote that thereafter, "His fame was as rapid as it has been lasting.
Winston Churchill memorably noted, "I set out upon I rode triumphantly through it from end to end and enjoyed it all.
It is the one English history which may be regarded as definitive Whatever its shortcomings the book is artistically imposing as well as historically unimpeachable as a vast panorama of a great period.
The tumultuous events surrounding the French Revolution inspired much of the historiography and analysis of the early 19th century. A Historyin Carlyle rewrote it from scratch.
He considered the dynamic forces of history as being the hopes and aspirations of people that took the form of ideas, and were often ossified into ideologies. Carlyle presented the history as dramatic events unfolding in the present as though he and the reader were participants on the streets of Paris at the famous events.
It is rarely read or cited in the last century.
Michelet and Taine[ edit ] Jules Michelet —later in his career.If the 20th century witnessed recurrent barbarity, barbarism in the full sense of Rosa Luxemburg's use of the term is a very real prospect in the 21st century.
One merit of Hobsbawm's book is that he comes close to recognising this. Introduction. Throughout the 20th century, African Americans built on the efforts of their 19th-century predecessors to continue to challenge white supremacist patriarchy and their lowly status in the socioeconomic hierarchy.
20th & 21st Century America. Updated July 11, JUMP TO.. Comprehensive Sites - Timelines - Primary Documents - Maps, vs.
- Impact of the 20th Century, Planes - Trains - Automobiles, The First 20 Years: , World War I, Immigration, The Roaring Twenties, The Turbulent Thirties, World War II, The Fight for . D-Lib Magazine January/February Volume 13 Number 1/2 ISSN Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Rules for the 20th Century.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, and ended on December 31, It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the s which began on January 1, and ended on December 31, Decades: s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s, s.
construction, decreased from 31 to 19 percent of the workforce. Service industries were the growth sector during the 20th century, jumping from 31 percent3 of all workers in to 78 percent4 in The labor force composition shifted in other ways too.
Female participation in the labor market grew dramatically in the 20th century.