Aug 21, Yulia Karabkina Opinion A complete break in diplomatic relations between Kiev and Moscow could be imminent, further complicating any chance of resolving the Ukraine crisis.
Polygraph exam soundmasker History of the Polygraph The Polygraph Lie Detector is a scientific instrument capable of simultaneously recording changes in several physiological variables while the subject is asked a series of questions pertaining to a specific issue under investigation.
The charts generated during the polygraph examination are interpreted by a polygraph examiner. The polygraph invented by John Augustus Larson of the United States of America inis considered officially one of the greatest inventions of all time.
The literal meaning of the word "polygraph" is "many writings" Polys Gr.
The problem of detecting lies has always concerned humans; therefore, the history of the polygraph, also know as the lie detector, has very deep roots. In ancient China dry rice was commonly utilized as a lie detector. The Chinese believed that salivation ceased at times of emotional anxiety such as a strong fear.
An "examiner" had a suspect hold a handful of dry rice in his mouth while he was asked a series of relevant questions. After questioning, the rice was examined. If it was dry, the suspect was declared to be a liar.
This means of deception detection was more advanced than a subjective evaluation of a suspect by a tribe chief. As was assumed then — and is currently supported by more recent evidence — the nervous tension created by lying slowed or blocked the flow of saliva.
Another, more informative method of detecting deception with some psychological validity, involved a donkey. Around BC Indian priests saturated a donkey's tail with carbon residue from an oil lamp and placed the animal in a dark tent. The suspects were sent into the tent and told that pulling the "magic" donkey's tail would reveal the liar if a guilty man pulls his tail, the donkey will bray.
When the suspects came out, the priests examined their hands. Those with clean hands had not touched the donkey's tail. Variations of this test were also used by Chinese and Arabs. A more rigid approach of detecting the truth was used in ancient Sparta.
Before being admitted to certain schools Spartan young men were required to pass the selection criteria. The young men were ordered to stand on the edge of a cliff, and were asked if they were afraid.
It was concluded that the pale young men lied and they were pushed from the cliff. In Ancient Rome bodyguard screening was conducted using a similar method.
Bodyguard candidates were asked provocative questions.
Those who blushed were selected for the job. It was believed that if a person blushed in response to provocative questions, he would not participate in plots. African tribes have utilized their own method of detecting a guilty person.
While performing a special dance around a suspected individual, a sorcerer intensely sniffed him. The "investigator" made a conclusion whether the suspect committed the crime based upon the intensity of his body odor smell.
During the Middle Ages a suspect's pulse rate readings were collected for determining his or her guilt. This method was employed for exposing unfaithful wives and their lovers.
The testing technique was very simple. A trained individual placed a finger on a wrist of a woman suspected of infidelity, while mentioning names of the men, who could have had an intimate relationship with her.
The examinee's pulse accelerated when she heard and, consequently, reacted to the name of her lover. In West Africa persons suspected of a crime were made to hold and pass a bird's egg to one another.
The person breaking the egg was considered guilty, based on the notion that his or her tremor-eliciting nervousness was to blame.
Only at the end of the 18th century were conditions conducive to developing technical means of detecting deception, subsequently named: Currently, polygraph and lie detector are the most widely used names in the world.
The earliest attempt at a scientific approach to the development of diagnostic instrumentation for lie detection dates circawhen the Italian physiologist, Angelo Mossobegan studies of fear and its influence on the heart and respiration.
The fear of being detected was considered an essential element of deception. Through his research Mosso demonstrated that blood pressure, blood volume, and pulse frequency changed depending on changes in emotions of a tested subject. From records of pulsation, Mosso was able to distinguish persons who were afraid from those who were tranquil.
Mosso devised several types of Plethysmographs Plethysmos Gr. Inthe French electrotherapy specialist, Dr.BBC Monitoring reports and analyses news from media around the world.
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