An introduction to the downfall of communism in eastern and central europe

After a June Soviet Ultimatum demanding BessarabiaBukovinaand the Hertza region from Romania, [49] [50] the Soviets entered these areas, Romania caved to Soviet demands and the Soviets occupied the territories. Thereafter, the Soviet Union began to push German forces westward through a series of battles on the Eastern Front.

An introduction to the downfall of communism in eastern and central europe

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National communism The decade of the s brought a period of relaxation at home and defiance of the Soviet Union in international relations. Although no genuine political liberalization took place and there was no retreat from the fundamentals of the Stalinist economic model, the intrusiveness of the regime in individual lives was curtailed.

The availability of consumer goods and housing improved, and such social services as health care, education, and pensions—all positive accomplishments of the communist regime—became more generous. Change was especially evident in cultural and intellectual life, as scholars were permitted to broaden the scope of their research, and writers dealt with subjects that previously had been forbidden.

A notable innovation was the flourishing of cultural exchanges with the United States and Europewhich signaled the resumption of old ties with the West and an end to Russification.

The source of this relaxation lay in the emergence of Romanian national communism, which was accompanied and in part stimulated by growing friction with the Soviet Union. Strains in the relations between Gheorghiu-Dej and Soviet party leaders came to the surface in the late s.

Gheorghiu-Dej feared that the de-Stalinization campaign launched by the new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchevmight force him from power, since he had been and continued to be one of the most rigid of Stalinists. To prevent the emergence of other power centres, he continually rotated officials in both the party and the government and relied increasingly on members of his family notably his wife, Elena to fill key positions.

The resulting extreme shortages of food, fuel, energy, medicines, and other basic necessities drastically lowered living standards and intensified unrest. His adherence to the Stalinist economic model had disastrous consequences: The regime sought to weaken community solidarity among the Hungarians of Transylvania by curtailing education and publication in their own language and by promoting the immigration of Romanians into cities with large Hungarian populations.

The Saxon and the Jewish communities, on the other hand, ceased to be significant political problems for the regime. Both had suffered heavy losses as a result of World War IIand afterward their numbers steadily declined through emigration—the Saxons to West Germany and the Jews to Israel.

Institutions and organizations, even the Communist Party itself, had been eviscerated and had become mere instruments for carrying out his will.

The Securitate had become the chief prop of his rule. Physical hardship and moral despair overwhelmed the society. On December 25 the couple was hurriedly tried and convicted by a special military tribunal on charges of mass murder and other crimes. They were executed that day.

An introduction to the downfall of communism in eastern and central europe

No formal dissolution of the Communist Party took place; it simply melted away. Those who favoured the removal of all former communists from positions of authority and the rapid introduction of a free-market economy left the NSF.

Those who remained—the majority of them former communists—transformed the NSF into a political party that showed little enthusiasm for Western economic practices.

In elections held in Maythe NSF won handily, in part because of its control of the media and in part because of the failure of the opposition to mount an effective campaign. To counter their anticommunist appeal, the NSF raised the spectre of unemployment and inflation, which they claimed would run rampant in Romania if the opposition came to power; they also promised to protect the social benefits put in place during the communist era.

The NSF assumed formal direction of the country with the inauguration of its head, Ion Iliescuas president on June 20, An advocate of state direction of the economy beforeIliescu, as president, remained wary of private enterprise and the move toward a free market.

The party maintained its political dominance, as evidenced by its successes in parliamentary and presidential elections held in September and Octoberin which Iliescu was reelected and his party emerged as the largest in the parliament.

A loose coalition of opposition parties, the Democratic Convention, also made a significant showing.- The Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe Communism is like Prohibition - it's a good idea but it won't work" (Will Rogers, ) (1) This essay will give a brief introduction to communism.

It will then discuss the various factors which combined to bring about the collapse of . According to your book, Stalin was pursuing more than ideology in Eastern Europe. He also had a geopolitical and even a mercantile agenda. There were many mercantile interests on Stalin's part. The American Empire.

By Wade Frazier. Revised July Purpose and Disclaimer. Timeline. Introduction. The New World Before “Discovery,” and the First Contacts. Thousands of East Germans streamed into the West, and in the course of the night, celebrants on both sides of the wall began to tear it down.

The collapse of the Berlin Wall was the culminating point of the revolutionary changes sweeping East Central Europe in The Downfall Of Communism In Eastern And Central Europe The shocking fall of communism in Eastern and Central Europe in the late eighties was remarkable for both its rapidity and its scope.

The specifics of communism's demise varied among nations, but similarities in both the causes and the effects of these revolutions were quite similar. 1. A German-Jewish Vision of the Future. When the cultural and social integration of the Jews in Germany became a reality in the course of the 19 th century, this development also heralded one of the greatest and most fruitful symbioses that ever connected two peoples.

For one, the identification of the central and partly also of the eastern .

Romanian Revolution - Wikipedia