History of Christianity Early Church and ecumenical councils Main articles: EphesusAsia Minor. The Monastery of St. Matthewlocated atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraqis recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.
Muslim conquests Europe in While the Roman Empire and Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the East, Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD Gradually however, the Christian religion re-asserted its influence over Western Europe.
The Book of Kells. Danish seamen, painted midth century. The Viking Age saw Norseman explore, raid, conquer and trade through wide areas of the West.
After the Fall of Romethe papacy served as a source of authority and continuity. In the absence of a magister militum living in Rome, even the control of military matters fell to the pope. Gregory the Great c — administered the church with strict reform.
A trained Roman lawyer and administrator, and a monk, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook and was a father of many of the structures of the later Roman Catholic Church. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he looked upon Church and State as co-operating to form a united whole, which acted in two distinct spheres, ecclesiastical and secular, but by the time of his death, the papacy was the great power in Italy: From this time forth the varied populations of Italy looked to the pope for guidance, and Rome as the papal capital continued to be the center of the Christian world.
Roman legions had never conquered Ireland, and as the Western Roman Empire collapsed, Christianity managed to survive there.
Monks sought out refuge at the far fringes of the known world: Disciplined scholarship carried on in isolated outposts like Skellig Michael in Ireland, where literate monks became some of the last preservers in Western Europe of the poetic and philosophical works of Western antiquity.
Later in the 6th century, the Byzantine Empire restored its rule in much of Italy and Spain. Missionaries sent from Ireland by the Pope helped to convert England to Christianity in the 6th century as well, restoring that faith as the dominant in Western Europe.
Working as a trader he encountered the ideas of Christianity and Judaism on the fringes of the Byzantine Empire, and around began preaching of a new monotheistic religion, Islamand in became the civil and spiritual leader of Medinasoon after conquering Mecca in By the early 8th century, Iberia and Sicily had fallen to the Muslims.
By the 9th century, MaltaCyprusand Crete had fallen — and for a time the region of Septimania. From this time, the "West" became synonymous with Christendomthe territory ruled by Christian powers, as Oriental Christianity fell to dhimmi status under the Muslim Caliphates.
The cause to liberate the " Holy Land " remained a major focus throughout medieval history, fueling many consecutive crusadesonly the first of which was successful although it resulted in many atrocities, in Europe as well as elsewhere.
Charlemagne "Charles the Great" in English became king of the Franks. Under his rule, his subjects in non-Christian lands like Germany converted to Christianity. Starting in the late 8th century, the Vikings began seaborne attacks on the towns and villages of Europe.
Eventually, they turned from raiding to conquest, and conquered Ireland, most of England, and northern France Normandy. These conquests were not long-lasting, however. In Alfred the Great drove the Vikings out of England, which he united under his rule, and Viking rule in Ireland ended as well.
In Normandy the Vikings adopted French culture and language, became Christians and were absorbed into the native population. By the beginning of the 11th century Scandinavia was divided into three kingdoms, NorwaySwedenand Denmarkall of which were Christian and part of Western civilization.
Norse explorers reached IcelandGreenlandand even North America, however only Iceland was permanently settled by the Norse. A period of warm temperatures from around enabled the establishment of a Norse outpost in Greenland inwhich survived for some years as the most westerly oupost of Christendom.
From here, Norseman attempted their short-lived European colony in North Americafive centuries before Columbus. They eventually settled in what is today Hungaryconverted to Christianity and became the ancestors of the Hungarian people.The Influence of Christianity on Western Civilization The positive influence of Christianity is far reaching especially in the rich history and culture of Western Civilization despite a long-standing ignorance or adamant denial of its contributions.
Christianity In Rome Akeya Hurt December 10, Final Paper Christianity in Rome Christianity has been around for many years, all the way back to the birth of Jesus It developed out of Judaism in the first century C.E. Christianity was founded on the life, teaching, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, and those who follow him are known as Christians.
Christianity has been a repressive force against the advancement of civilization. A. Karl Marx termed Christianity an opiate of the masses, a tool of exploitation.
B. Sigmund Freud called Christianity an illusion, a crutch, a source of guilt and pathologies. The Influence of Christianity on Western Civilization The positive influence of Christianity is far reaching especially in the rich history and culture of Western Civilization despite a long standing ignorance or adamant denial of its contributions.
Christianity has been historically intertwined with Western civilization. However, it is difficult to decide what its effects were. However, it is difficult to decide what its effects were. Through its long history, the Church has been a major source of social services such as schooling.
Aryanism. Augustine. Bible. Catholic Church. Christian Church in the Middle Ages. Christian Church, Separation of. Christianity.
Christianity has been a repressive force against the advancement of civilization. A. Karl Marx termed Christianity an opiate of the masses, a tool of exploitation. B. Sigmund Freud called Christianity an illusion, a crutch, a source of guilt and pathologies. The poem which in its English translation is called "Western civilization" ("Civilização ocidental"), constitutes a good example of that so-called civilization and Christianity brought to Angola (and other parts of Africa) by the Portuguese colonizers. Christianity In Rome Akeya Hurt December 10, Final Paper Christianity in Rome Christianity has been around for many years, all the way back to the birth of Jesus It developed out of Judaism in the first century C.E. Christianity was founded on the life, teaching, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, and those who follow him are known as Christians.
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