References and Further Reading 1.
Criteria of truth Whether someone's belief is true is not a prerequisite for its belief. On the other hand, if something is actually known, then it categorically cannot be false. For example, if a person believes that a bridge is safe enough to support her, and attempts to cross it, but the bridge then collapses under her weight, it could be said that she believed that the bridge was safe but that her belief was mistaken.
It would not be accurate to say that she knew that the bridge was safe, because plainly it was not. By contrast, if the bridge actually supported her weight, then the person might say that she had believed the bridge was safe, whereas now, after proving it to herself by crossing itshe knows it was safe.
Epistemologists argue over whether belief is the proper truth-bearer. Some would rather describe knowledge as a system of justified true propositionsand others as a system of justified true sentences.
Plato, in his Gorgias Epistemology essay essay, argues that belief is the most commonly invoked truth-bearer. According to the theory that knowledge is justified true belief, to know that a given proposition is true, one must not only believe the relevant true proposition, but also have a good reason for doing so.
One implication of this would be that no one would gain knowledge just by believing something that happened to be true. For example, an ill person with no medical training, but with a generally optimistic attitude, might believe that he will recover from his illness quickly.
Nevertheless, even if this belief turned out to be true, the patient would not have known that he would get well since his belief lacked justification.
The definition of knowledge as justified true belief was widely accepted until the s. At this time, a paper written by the American philosopher Edmund Gettier provoked major widespread discussion. See theories of justification for other views on the idea. Gettier problem Euler diagram representing a definition of knowledge.
In a few pages, Gettier argued that there are situations in which one's belief may be justified and true, yet fail to count as knowledge. That is, Gettier contended that while justified belief in a true proposition is necessary for that proposition to be known, it is not sufficient.
As in the diagram, a true proposition can be believed by an individual purple region but still not fall within the "knowledge" category yellow region.
According to Gettier, there are certain circumstances in which one does not have knowledge, even when all of the above conditions are met. Gettier proposed two thought experimentswhich have become known as Gettier cases, as counterexamples to the classical account of knowledge.
One of the cases involves two men, Smith and Jones, who are awaiting the results of their applications for the same job.
Each man has ten coins in his pocket. Smith has excellent reasons to believe that Jones will get the job and, furthermore, knows that Jones has ten coins in his pocket he recently counted them.
From this Smith infers, "The man who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket. Furthermore, Smith, not Jones, is going to get the job.
While Smith has strong evidence to believe that Jones will get the job, he is wrong. Smith has a justified true belief that the man who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket; however, according to Gettier, Smith does not know that the man who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket, because Smith's belief is " These cases fail to be knowledge because the subject's belief is justified, but only happens to be true by virtue of luck.
In other words, he made the correct choice believing that the man who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket for the wrong reasons. This example is similar to those often given when discussing belief and truth—wherein a person's belief of what will happen can coincidentally be correct without the actual knowledge to base it on.
Responses to Gettier[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message The responses to Gettier have been varied. Usually, they have involved substantial attempts to provide a definition of knowledge different from the classical one, either by recasting knowledge as justified true belief with some additional fourth condition, or proposing a completely new set of conditions, disregarding the classical ones entirely.
Infallibilism, indefeasibility[ edit ] In one response to Gettier, the American philosopher Richard Kirkham has argued that the only definition of knowledge that could ever be immune to all counterexamples is the infallibilist one. In other words, the justification for the belief must be infallible.
Yet another possible candidate for the fourth condition of knowledge is indefeasibility. Defeasibility theory maintains that there should be no overriding or defeating truths for the reasons that justify one's belief.
For example, suppose that person S believes he saw Tom Grabit steal a book from the library and uses this to justify the claim that Tom Grabit stole a book from the library.Here is a short checklist of points to watch out for when writing the TOK Essay.
Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
Epistemology Essay Examples. 27 total results. A Comparison Between the Concepts of Metaphysics and Epistemology. words. 1 page. A Comparison of Perspectives of Descartes and Locke Regarding Epistemology.
The Idea of Epistemology in . Epistemology is the investigation into the grounds and nature of knowledge.
Found in the ’s From Old Greece forward, Plato, Socrates, and developmental ideas. Rationalism means the knowledge can be acquired through the use of reason and empiricism is obtained through experience.
Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology: Expanded Second Edition [Ayn Rand, Harry Binswanger, Leonard Peikoff] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Today man's mind is under attack by all the leading schools of philosophy. We are told that we cannot trust our senses.
Epistemology, the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human regardbouddhiste.com term is derived from the Greek epistēmē (“knowledge”) and logos (“reason”), and accordingly the field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge.
Epistemology has a long history within Western philosophy, beginning with the ancient Greeks and continuing to the present.