Final retroflex r is written r. Pinyin is used in the following discussion of Modern Standard Chinese grammar. There are equational sentences with the word order subject—predicate—e. There are three tones high, mid, low in syllables ending in -p, -t, and -k; six tones occur in other types of syllables mid level, low level, high falling, low falling, high rising, low rising.
How many hours are needed for Chinese Mandarin or Cantonese speakers to learn English? Does prior teaching in an ineffective method rote learning and such matter? Irene Thompson May 28, Ineffective teaching methods can certainly impede the learning process.
Great strides in teaching approaches have been made since rote was the primary method of L2 learning. Students are free, however, to break free from the shackles of prior unfortunate experiences and become independent learners and intelligent consumers of teaching methodologies.
Matthew May 23, I am currently learning Japanese but took a look at Chinese as well and I honestly think there should be a Level V for Chinese as it is far more difficult in my view than Japanese.
Irene Thompson May 28, Experience shows that both of these languages take a very long time to master. It is a very rare L2 learner who can achieve native-like proficiency in either one of them without long-term study and immersion in the language and culture of the respective countries.
Irene Thompson June 6, Memorizing words is not the same as being able to function in the language which is a what proficiency is all about.
While it is true that the grammar of Chinese is not particularly complex, there are other factors that make it a difficult language such as tones, lack of cognates, and the writing system. Stephen September 24, To say nothing of those tones! I found when trying to learn Chinese that he monosyllabic nature of most words was oddly difficult, since to my ears individual words often have little in the way of memorable, distinguishing features, if that makes any sense.
Recently, when visiting Tokyo I met three young people from Western Europe who spoke with great proficiency, if not fluency, all of them using Japanese professionally. Each learned Japanese as a conscious act of will, without, say, having spent time in Japanese as a kid.
I was in awe. Thank you for all the information on this page: Aaron November 14, I disagree with the common assertion that Chinese has no grammar or verb tenses. Try speaking to folks exclusively in the present tense in any language and see how far that gets you.
There is an appropriate sentence structure, which when violated is unintelligible. The same sort of subject verb object sentence structure common to other languages.
There are ways to demarcate the future, past, on-going, happening-as-we-speak, etc. In short, Chinese is no different from other languages in this regard. Also, Modern Chinese has a significant amount of loan words from western languages—though one must first know the pronunciation of common Chinese characters used for this purpose.
They are most commonly used for proper nouns. Reading a newspaper without these would be impossible. There are also loan words from non-western languages.
It is also worth noting that modern written Chinese itself is largely constructed of characters borrowed from other perhaps now extinct regional languages some years ago. The commonly propagandized story says the 1st emperor, Qin ShiHuang, collected characters from across his land China and combined them so that everyone could communicate.
By the way, thank you for this fascinating article! My criticisms are for the comments as noted.
Irene Thompson December 8, Of course Chinese has grammar. By definition, all languages are structured. It is just that Chinese marks grammatical categories in ways that differ from those used in languages that belong to other families, such as Indo-European.
And, of course, Chinese has loan words in addition to loan translations calques.Tom Marvolo Riddle (31 December, – 2 May, ), later known as Lord Voldemort or alternatively as You-Know-Who, He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named, or the Dark Lord, was a half-blood wizard considered to have been the most powerful and dangerous dark wizard of all time.
The only child and son of. Consider writing "I love you" in a different language in a sweet love letter or card. You can also text this phrase to your beloved or use it to end an email to your sweetheart.
If you are hesitant to say these words, using another language may make it easier for you to say them for the first time to your love. ILOVEYOU, sometimes referred to as Love Bug or Love Letter, was a computer worm that attacked tens of millions of Windows personal computers on and after 5 May local time in the Philippines when it started spreading as an email message with the subject line "ILOVEYOU" and the attachment "regardbouddhiste.com".
The latter file extension ('vbs', a type of interpreted file) was most. A writing system, also referred to as script or orthography, is a convention for representing the units of a spoken language by making marks on rocks, leaves, clay, bark, metal, or paper.
The "cultural spheres of influence" of India, China, Europe, and Islâm are founded on the World Civilizations of their central or foundational regions, which may be defined by religion or culture but most precisely by the possession of an ancient Classical language attended by a large literature in that language.
In India this language is Sanskrit,, which is first of all the sacred language. Learn how to spell and pronounce love in 30 different languages. Love in 30 different languages study guide by chuddle includes 30 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more.
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