Mutations in human DNA are used to show relationships and evolutionary history.
Map of early diversification of modern humans according to mitochondrial population genetics see: The first lineage to branch off from Mitochondrial Eve is L0.
It is also found among the Mbuti people. The macro haplogroups M and Nwhich are the lineages of the rest of the world outside Africa, descend from L3.
L3 is about 84, years old and haplogroup M and N are about 63, years old. If there had been several migrations, one would expect descendants of more than one lineage to be found.
|The Evolution of Early Man||Now, after 40 years, Mungo Man may finally be heading home to be returned to his burial place in Lake Mungo National Park. Mungo Man was discovered by Jim Bowler on 26 February when shifting sand dunes exposed his remains.|
|ABOUT THE MAGAZINE||Australopithecus africanus -- The word "Australopithecus" means "southern ape. Raymond Dart, professor of anatomy at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, was the first to study these fossils.|
|Out of Africa?||Map of early diversification of modern humans according to mitochondrial population genetics see: The first lineage to branch off from Mitochondrial Eve is L0.|
|DEPARTMENTS||The answer is really none. It is absolutely given that there exists one.|
L3's female descendants, the M and N haplogroup lineages, are found in very low frequencies in Africa although haplogroup M1 populations are very ancient and diversified in North and North-east Africa and appear to be more recent arrivals. A possible explanation is that these mutations occurred in East Africa shortly before the exodus and became the dominant haplogroups after the departure through the founder effect.
Alternatively, the mutations may have arisen shortly afterwards. Southern Route and haplogroups M and N[ edit ] Results Out of africa or multiregional theory mtDNA collected from aboriginal Malaysians called Orang Asli and the creation of a phylogenetic tree indicate that the hapologroups M and N share characteristics with original African groups from approximately 85, years ago and share characteristics with sub-haplogroups among coastal south-east Asian regions, such as Australasia, the Indian subcontinent and throughout continental Asia, which had dispersed and separated from its African origins approximately 65, years ago.
This southern coastal dispersion would have occurred before the dispersion through the Levant approximately 45, years ago. Evidence of the coastal migration is thought to have been destroyed by the rise in sea levels during the Holocene epoch.
The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around Arabia and Persia until reaching India.
The indigenous people of the Andaman Islands also belong to the M lineage. The Andamanese are thought to be offshoots of some of the earliest inhabitants in Asia because of their long isolation from the mainland. They are evidence of the coastal route of early settlers that extends from India to Thailand and Indonesia all the way to Papua New Guinea.
The proportion of haplogroup M increases eastwards from Arabia to India; in eastern India, M outnumbers N by a ratio of 3: Crossing into Southeast Asia, haplogroup N mostly in the form of derivatives of its R subclade reappears as the predominant lineage.
Human genetic variation and Human genetic clustering A study of African, European and Asian populations, found greater genetic diversity among Africans than among Eurasians, and that genetic diversity among Eurasians is largely a subset of that among Africans, supporting the out of Africa model.
Based on this evidence, the study concluded that human populations encountered novel selective pressures as they expanded out of Africa. According to this study, Papua New Guineans continued to be exposed to selection for dark skin color so that, although these groups are distinct from Africans in other places, the allele for dark skin color shared by contemporary Africans, Andamanese and New Guineans is an archaism.
A study by Gurdasani et al. For this reason, JCV has been used as a genetic marker for human evolution and migration. From this Shackelton et al. Admixture of archaic and modern humans[ edit ] Main article: Archaic human admixture with modern humans Evidence for archaic human species descended from Homo heidelbergensis having interbred with modern humans outside of Africa, was discovered in the s.
This concerns primarily Neanderthal admixture in all modern populations except for Sub-Saharan Africans but evidence has also been presented for Denisova hominin admixture in Australasia i. AterianBaradostianand Microlith In addition to genetic analysis, Petraglia et al.
He proposed that the stone tools could be dated to 35 ka in South Asia, and the new technology might be influenced by environmental change and population pressure. The cladistic relationship of humans with the African apes was suggested by Charles Darwin after studying the behaviour of African apesone of which was displayed at the London Zoo.
Haeckel argued that humans were more closely related to the primates of South-east Asia and rejected Darwin's African hypothesis.Mungo Man is the name given to the remains of the oldest anatomically modern human found in Australia to date and one of the oldest Homo sapien skeletons outside of Africa.
The Multiregional Continuity Model 15 contends that after Homo erectus left Africa and dispersed into other portions of the Old World, regional populations slowly evolved into modern humans.
This model contains the following components: some level of gene flow between geographically separated populations prevented speciation, after the dispersal. Birth Name: Blake Austin Griffin. Place of Birth: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.
Date of Birth: March 16, Ethnicity: *African-Haitian/African-American (father).
The Multiregional Continuity Model 15 contends that after Homo erectus left Africa and dispersed into other portions of the Old World, regional populations slowly evolved into modern humans. This model contains the following components: some level of gene flow between geographically separated populations prevented speciation, after the dispersal.
AAAARRRGH! The charts don’t answer the question. Tree-thinking may not come naturally, but it doesn’t matter because a tree is a poor fit to human population distances. 2) Recent African origin proposes that modern humans evolved once in Africa between - thousand years ago; modern humans subsequently colonised the rest of the world without genetic mixing with archaic forms.