Total war A woman at work in a munitions factory during World War I World War I was a total war, involving the governments, economies and populations of participating nations to an extent never seen before in history. Governments played an active and interventionist role, passing laws that would be intolerable during peacetime.
Whole societies of nearly every nation in the continent were either directly or indirectly affected by the war. Of the 60 million European soldiers who were mobilized from —8 million were killed, 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million were seriously injured.
It is estimated that approximately 5 million civilians died due to war-induced causes. The birth rate sharply declined during the war period as well.
The political environment also has to be looked at as playing an important role in the inability of the Allies to forge a lasting peace. Any peace settlement would have to operate within highly unstable international and domestic environments… [and] this international instability made the attainment of a lasting peace so difficult.
However, these goals were recognized by all of the leaders as not easily achievable. The Versailles Treaty did little to shape any sort of long-term peace from the results of World War I. It was doomed from the start, and another war was practically certain.
The Versailles Peace Conference exposed the ideological rift growing between the Allies. While public opinions of both nations were strongly in favor of seeing Germany pay to the fullest extent, only France saw Germany as a potential threat to the future security of European stability.
France feared that not levying harsh enough penalties upon Germany would only make her stronger and she would eventually rise up against France in revenge. So while the British felt that the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh on Germany, France felt as though it were not harsh enough.
One aspect to deal with was German disarmament. The German navy was to be limited to 15, officers and men, six battleships, six light cruisers, twelve destroyers, and twelve torpedo boats; meanwhile, the army was to be restricted tomen who would be obliged to enlist for twelve years. The treaty, however, offered no hint as to how long the disarmament should last.
This, therefore, was one of the parts of the treaty that Germany continually abused and disobeyed out of bitterness. As it appeared that Germany would not abide by the disarmament policy for good, France began to worry, and for good reason.
They had been unable to secure an alliance with Britain or the United States. Britain, unlike France, never seriously expected Germany to become a threat to the peace effort. In fact, the entire peace conference almost ended early when France began to demand that an independent Rhineland and Saar come under French occupation.
While France argued that she wanted the western German frontier to end at the Rhine for security reasons, British Prime Minister Lloyd George feared that this would most likely result in a future conflict between the two states.
Another issue of significant note is how the Allies dealt with the war reparations that Germany owed. One of the major questions regarding the reparations was the following: But even answering these questions became difficult to answer.
For instance, for how much was Germany accountable? Was Germany to pay for all of the damage assessed? And how was the damage assessed? Were the damages to include government costs such as war pensions? For Germany, the terms of reparations eventually arrived at by the Reparations Committee were unacceptable.
The German delegates viewed the economic sanctions as being far too harsh. Therefore, they had a hard time accepting the fact that they should have to pay for anything. Or was that a farce created by Keynes and supported by the German government who wished to avoid further punishment and humiliation?
This will be discussed more in upcoming pages. Article of the Treaty of Versailles, which laid the blame for World War I solely on the shoulders of Germany, remains to this day a subject of intense emotional debate among Germans: The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
Then again, unable to effectively enforce this treaty, a harsher one would not have been able to lead Europe any closer to peace. As Foch predicted, the Versailles Treaty was indeed only a 20 year armistice for the European powers.
Jun 06, · World War Two began in September when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany’s invasion of Poland. Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany’s invasion of Poland, the causes of World War 2 are more complex. In what ways/to what extent was the United States an "affluent society" in the post-World War II era? The U.S. economy boom during the s, unparalleled economic growth, personal income . Jul 24, · Because of the poorly resolved outcome of The Great War that eventually developed into World War II, and their astoundingly similar aspects, the conflicts from unquestionably can be recognized as one, independent war, merely separated by a time of peace.
The inability of the Allies to agree on how to deal with Germany, the main war-time aggressor, led to her regain of economic and political strength in the s and 30s. The Second World War, which broke out inwas waged by Germany against the Allies to exact revenge and to finish what could not be completed by World War I.
Now, with the onset of World War II, Hitler appeared to their chance at avenging the wrongdoings set in place by the peace negotiations twenty years earlier. The treaty was put together in haste and the Germans refused to sign it because it treated them, or at least they thought so, too harshly in light of what they had been promised i.
For years afterwards, the Allies and Germany struggled through revision after revision of the treaty until the treaty could bend no more inwith the outbreak of World War II as Germany invaded Poland. What stopped the Treaty of Versailles from ever approaching success, however, was not the terms of the treaty, argues Henig, but rather the reluctance to enforce the terms by the Allies.
It was this critical collapse, rather than the provisions of the peace terms themselves, which ensured that the Treaty of Versailles was never fully accepted or enforced.Causes of World War One Isaiah Puryear Mr. Noble 4th World War One had many key players, countries and empires being Great Britain, France, German, Austria-Hungary and Russia.
Some of the key battles of WW1 were the battle of Marne , battle of Ypres , and ,the battle of Somme , battle of Cambria and the famous battle of Verdun Sep 16, · To What Extent, and in What Ways, Could World War Ii Be Considered a Continuation of World War I Essay.
Pages:9 Words This is just a sample. To get a unique essay. and in What Ways, Could World War Ii Be Considered a Continuation of World War I specifically for you for only $ $/page. Apr 04, · On the flip side of this alt-history coin, we also seriously need to consider Churchill's Operation Unthinkable — the continuation of the war against .
Jun 06, · World War Two began in September when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany’s invasion of Poland. Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany’s invasion of Poland, the causes of World War 2 are more complex.
In what ways/to what extent was the United States an "affluent society" in the post-World War II era?
The U.S. economy boom during the s, unparalleled economic growth, personal income . Feb 25, · On War, by General Carl von ClausewitzPage 1 of The Project Gutenberg EBook of On War, by Carl von Clausewitz This eBook is for the u.